Navigating Compassion Fatigue: Causes, Signs, Effects, and the Path to Recovery

Compassion fatigue, also known as empathy fatigue, often affects individuals in caregiving, healthcare, or other professions involving frequent exposure to others’ stress, trauma, and suffering. It arises from the emotional and psychological toll of empathizing with and supporting other people, particularly those who have experienced trauma. Over time, continual exposure to the distressing stories and experiences of trauma survivors can take a heavy toll.

What is Compassion Fatigue?

Research shows that compassion fatigue consists of two primary components: burnout and secondary traumatic stress. When experiencing burnout, individuals may feel overwhelmed and exhausted, experience a sense of helplessness and hopelessness, and believe that their efforts won’t alleviate the situation. This work-related strain can cause secondary traumatic stress, or feeling as if the trauma experienced by the individuals one is assisting is personally affecting them or their loved ones. Over time, if these feelings persist, they can develop into a condition known as vicarious trauma.

Compassion fatigue is distinct from burnout, which occurs in a wide range of professions – many of which do not require empathic connection with vulnerable people. Compassion fatigue results when the differentiation between the self and other – whether that be clients, patients, students or dependants – becomes blurred and we lose our capacity to draw a boundary between supporting others who are suffering and becoming entangled in their personal challenges.

Two primary factors contribute to compassion fatigue: a low capacity for emotional regulation (which could result from exhaustion, life stress, unmet needs, etc.) combined with bearing the burden of witnessing others’ trauma or suffering. 

Signs and Symptoms of Compassion Fatigue

Compassion fatigue manifests through a multitude of signs and symptoms that can be deeply distressing and disruptive to daily life and which often impact relationships, work, and overall well-being. As compassion fatigue is related to emotions and regulation, it can profoundly impact our ability to feel. This serves as a coping mechanism, in which the body interrupts the chronic intensity of the empathic distress and emotional strain you are under. However, it can also impact your ability to feel positive emotions like joy and connection. 

Recognizing the wide range of signs of compassion fatigue is crucial for timely intervention and effective management.

Emotional Exhaustion: Overwhelming emotional fatigue and depletion, making it challenging to connect or empathize with others. There’s a sense of feeling drained emotionally, which makes it difficult to manage one’s own emotions.

Increased Stress Levels: Persistent high levels of stress and anxiety, which often lead to heightened arousal, restlessness, or hypervigilance. Individuals may struggle with sleep disturbances and an inability to relax.

Depersonalization: A sense of detachment or withdrawal from the people or situations one is meant to assist or care for. This can lead to cynicism, a lack of empathy, and a more negative attitude toward others.

Reduced Ability to Sympathize: Difficulty in maintaining a compassionate and empathetic approach toward those experiencing suffering or trauma. This can result in a decreased ability to connect emotionally with others’ pain.

Difficulty Concentrating: Challenges in focusing on tasks and maintaining attention, which leads to decreased productivity and effectiveness in professional roles.

Intrusive Thoughts or Images: Recurrent, distressing thoughts, or images related to the traumatic experiences of those they care for. These can invade the individual’s mind, even outside of working hours.

Physical Symptoms: Chronic fatigue, headaches, gastrointestinal issues, and other stress-related physical ailments may manifest due to the ongoing exposure to trauma and stress.

Sleep Disturbances: Difficulty falling or staying asleep, frequent nightmares, or disrupted sleep patterns due to the emotional toll of the work.

Isolation and Detachment: Withdrawal from personal relationships and a tendency to isolate oneself to cope with the emotional burden. This can impact both personal and professional interactions.

Loss of Enjoyment: Diminished interest or pleasure in activities that were once enjoyable, which leads to a sense of dissatisfaction and a negative outlook on life.

Understanding and addressing these signs and symptoms are essential to managing compassion fatigue effectively and knowing when to reach out for support or reduce workload. 

Causes and Risk Factors for Compassion Fatigue 

Compassion fatigue arises from a complex interplay of various causes and risk factors and is primarily observed in individuals regularly exposed to others’ trauma and suffering. Understanding these factors is crucial for prevention and effective management.

Empathetic Engagement

Individuals in caregiving roles often deeply empathize with the trauma and suffering of those they care for. This high level of engagement, while essential for providing effective care, can gradually deplete their emotional reserves and lead to compassion fatigue.

Trauma Exposure

Continual exposure to traumatic stories, distressing events, or severe suffering can overwhelm an individual’s emotional capacity. This exposure, common in professions like healthcare, social work, and emergency response, increases the risk of compassion fatigue.

Work Environment

High-stress work settings, heavy workload, lack of necessary resources, and insufficient support systems amplify the challenges faced by caregivers. The demands of such environments can make it difficult to maintain emotional well-being and contribute to compassion fatigue.


Caregivers, often driven by their commitment to helping others, may neglect their own self-care needs. Insufficient attention to physical and emotional well-being can result in exhaustion and burnout.

Prior Trauma or Stress

Individuals with a history of personal trauma or chronic stress may find it challenging to cope with the secondary trauma experienced through caregiving. Past experiences of trauma can compound the emotional toll and make them more susceptible to compassion fatigue.

Lack of Boundaries

Difficulty establishing and maintaining appropriate emotional and professional boundaries with clients or patients can result in emotional entanglement. This lack of clear boundaries can lead to heightened emotional involvement and increase the risk of compassion fatigue.

Long-Term Exposure

Professionals, like healthcare workers, first responders, and long-term caregivers, often face prolonged and uninterrupted exposure to the suffering of others. The cumulative effect of long-term exposure raises the risk of compassion fatigue, as the emotional toll intensifies over time.

Recognizing these causes and risk factors empowers individuals in caregiving roles to implement strategies like self-care, boundary setting, seeking professional support, and managing workloads effectively. These proactive measures are essential for mitigating compassion fatigue and preserving the overall well-being of caregivers.

The Path To Recovery from Compassion Fatigue 

Recovering from compassion fatigue involves a deliberate approach. It begins with acknowledging the fatigue and its impact on your well-being. Self-awareness is key, followed by embracing self-care practices like regular exercise, healthy eating, and adequate rest. Establishing boundaries to prevent overextension and seeking professional support through therapy or counseling are vital. Connecting with a supportive community of peers or fellow professionals offers validation and encouragement. Ultimately, recovery from compassion fatigue is a journey of self-compassion, resilience, and gradual restoration of emotional balance.


[1]  Zhang, L. et al. (2021) ‘Self-Oriented Empathy and Compassion Fatigue: The Serial Mediation of Dispositional Mindfulness and Counselor’s Self-Efficacy’, Frontiers in psychology, 11, pp. 613908–613908. Available at:

[2] Sinclair, S. et al. (2017) ‘Compassion fatigue: A meta-narrative review of the healthcare literature’, International journal of nursing studies, 69, pp. 9–24. Available at:

[3] Luoma, J.B., Hayes, S.C. and Walser, R.D. (2017) Learning ACT: An Acceptance and Commitment Therapy Skills Training Manual for Therapists. 2nd edn. Oakland: Context Press.

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